- Diabetes Treatment
(Type 1 and Type 2 Medications and Diet) Center
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- for 1 last update 26 May 2020 Patient Comments: Diabetes Treatment - Effective Treatments
- Patient Comments: Diabetes - Diet
- Patient Comments: Diabetes Treatment - Medications
- Patient Comments: Diabetes Treatment - Insulin
- Find a local Endocrinologist in your town
- Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts
- What is diabetes?
- What is prediabetes? How is it treated?
- What is the treatment for diabetes?
- Medications for type 2 diabetes
- Diabetes diet
- Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
- SGLT2 inhibitors
- DPP-4 inhibitors
- GLP-1 receptor agonists
- Pramlintide (Symlin)
- Combination medications for type 2 diabetes
- Treatment of diabetes with insulin
- Different methods of delivering insulin
- Alternative treatments for diabetes
- Which specialties of doctors treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts
- Controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels is the major goal of diabetes treatment, in order to prevent complications of the disease.
- Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise.
- Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes.
- The choice of medications for type 2 diabetes is individualized, taking into account:
- the effectiveness and side effect profile of each medication,
- the patient's underlying health status,
- any medication compliance issues, and
- cost to the patient or health-care system.
- Medications for type 2 diabetes can work in different ways to reduce blood glucose levels. They may:
- increase insulin sensitivity,
- increase glucose excretion,
- decrease absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, or
- work through other mechanisms.
- Medications for type 2 diabetes are often used in combination.
- Different methods of delivering insulin include:
- pre-filled pens, and
- the insulin pump.
- Proper nutrition is a part of any diabetes care plan. There is no one specific "diabetic diet" that is recommended for all individuals.
- Pancreas transplantation is an area of active study for the treatment of diabetes.
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A type 2 diabetes diet is based on eating foods low on the glycemic index, for example:
- Whole wheat
- Brown rice
- Steel-cut oatmeal
What is diabetes?
What is diabetes?
Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas. This release of insulin promotes the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more a result of insulin resistance (cells not being able to use insulin effectively or at all. It was formerly known as adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
QUESTIONDiabetes is for 1 last update 26 May 2020 defined best as...Diabetes is defined best as... See Answer
What is prediabetes? How is it treated?
Prediabetes is the term used to describe elevated blood sugar (glucose) that has not yet reached the level for a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. It can be treated by lifestyle changes such as consuming a healthy diet, weight loss, and regular exercise.
What is the treatment for diabetes?
The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels.
Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
- exercise, and a
- type 1 diabetes diet.
Type 2 diabetes is for 1 last update 26 May 2020 treated:Type 2 diabetes is treated:
- First with weight reduction, a type 2 diabetes diet, and exercise
- Diabetes medications (oral or injected) are prescribed when these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars of type 2 diabetes.
- If other medications become ineffective treatment with insulin may be initiated.
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Medications for type 2 diabetes
Note that these medications used to treat type 2 diabetes are typically not used in pregnant or breastfeeding women. At present the only recommended way of controlling diabetes for 1 last update 26 May 2020 in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding is by diet, exercise, and insulin therapy. You should speak with your health-care professional if you are taking these medications, are considering becoming pregnant, or if you have become pregnant while taking these medications.Note that these medications used to treat type 2 diabetes are typically not used in pregnant or breastfeeding women. At present the only recommended way of controlling diabetes in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding is by diet, exercise, and insulin therapy. You should speak with your health-care professional if you are taking these medications, are considering becoming pregnant, or if you have become pregnant while taking these medications.
Medications for type 2 diabetes are designed to
- increase insulin output by the pancreas,
- decrease the amount of glucose released from the liver,
- increase the sensitivity (response) of cells to insulin,
- decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine, and
- slow emptying of the stomach, thereby delaying nutrient digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
A preferred drug can provide more than one benefit (for example, lower blood sugar and control cholesterol). Varying combinations of medications can control diabetes. Not every patient with type 2 diabetes will benefit from every drug, and not every drug is suitable for each patient.
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SLIDESHOWType 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication See Slideshow
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Proper nutrition is essential for all people with diabetes. Control of blood glucose levels is only one goal of a healthy eating plan. A diabetic diet helps achieve and maintain a normal body weight, while preventing the common cardiac and vascular complications of diabetes.
There is no prescribed diet plan for diabetes and no single “diabetes diet”. Eating plans are tailored to fit each individual's needs, schedules, and eating habits. Each diabetes diet plan must be balanced with the intake of insulin and other diabetes medications. In general, the principles of a healthy diabetes diet are the same for everyone. Consumption of various foods in a healthy diet includes whole grains, fruits, non-fat dairy products, beans, lean meats, vegetarian substitutes, poultry, or fish.
People with diabetes may benefit from eating small meals throughout the day, instead of eating one or two heavy meals. No foods are absolutely forbidden for people with diabetes. Attention to portion control and advance meal planning can help people with diabetes enjoy the same meals as everyone else.
Glycemic index and glycemic load are further considerations in considering a meal plan for people with diabetes. Foods with low glycemic index and load raise blood sugar more slowly than high glycemic index/load foods. Glycemic index refers to a standardized measurement, while glycemic load takes a typical portion size into account.
Meal timing and amount of insulin administration are considerations when planning a diet for people with type 1 diabetes.
Weight reduction and exercise
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There are other causes of hyperhomocysteinemia, for example, alcoholism.
Supplementing the diet with folic acid and possibly vitamins B6 and B12 supplements can lower homocysteine levels. Currently there is no direct proof that taking folic acid and B vitamins lower homocysteine levels and prevent heart attacks and strokes. Talk the 1 last update 26 May 2020 to your doctor if you feel you need to have your homocysteine blood levels checked.Supplementing the diet with folic acid and possibly vitamins B6 and B12 supplements can lower homocysteine levels. Currently there is no direct proof that taking folic acid and B vitamins lower homocysteine levels and prevent heart attacks and strokes. Talk to your doctor if you feel you need to have your homocysteine blood levels checked.
Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
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